Mastodon & Fediverse for Beginners
written by Paula on 2021-01-08. last edit on 2021-11-24.
Die deutsche Version findest du hier.
Article 1: Mastodon & Fediverse for Beginners
- What is Mastodon?
- What is the Fediverse?
- How to get an account
- How to get started with your account
- Best practices
- Further articles
Article 2: Fediverse for the advanced Article 3: Ecko, the Mastodon Fork Article 4: Beginners Guide to Pixelfed Article 5: Beginners Guide to WriteFreely (coming soon) Article 6: Beginners Guide to Peertube (coming soon) Article 7: Beginners Guide to ... ... Article x: Beginners Guide to Hosting Your Own Fediverse Instance
What is Mastodon?
Mastodon is a microblogging platform. Microblogging means you have a blog with short (micro) posts. Usually you'll have a 500 characters limit for your posts. Unlike well known social media platforms, Mastodon is:
- Free Software
- not spying on you
- part of the Fediverse
Free Softwaremeans software where the source code is freely available and can be used according to the 4 freedoms. For you that means that you can trust that there are no evil parts in the software because otherwise someone would have already found it and there would be an uproar. Since Mastodon is free software, there are also forks, like my personal favorite fork Ecko.
decentralized(or federated) means that there is not one big server where everything happens, that can be hacked or have downtime. Instead there are many servers, they are never all down and hacking one won't get the hacker a lot of data.
What is the Fediverse?
Imagine Twitter, Facebook, Instagram & Co were all part of one giant network. That's basically what the fediverse is, except the parts are less well known, free & decentralized alternatives to those. E.g. Mastodon is like Twitter, Friendica is like Facebook, Pixelfed is like Instagram and there are many more. If you e.g. have a Mastodon account you can follow accounts on Friendica or Pixelfed and you might not even notice, that they are not Mastodon accounts.
How to get an account
First you need to decide what part of the Fediverse you want to join. For this article I'm going to assume you want to join Mastodon. You can also start with a different network and a lot of what I'll write about will work about the same. You can find a comprehensive list of different networks in Article 2.
I'll explain instances better later. For now let's just say if Mastodon is part of the Fediverse, then each Mastodon instance is part of Mastodon. So instances are small networks. If you have lots of different interests a good start is mastodon.online, the official instance by the makers of Mastodon. If you have specific interests go to joinmastodon.org to find instances ordered by theme. E.g. my own instance climatejustice.social is listed under “Activism”.
What if the instance is not open?
There are 3 registration modes for instances: “Anyone can sign up”, “Approval required” and “Nobody can sign up”. For both the first and the second mode you can just register. The difference is that for the first mode you'll get a sign up email immediately, in the second case you'll have to wait for approval from a moderator. In my experience this usually doesn't take more than a day. In the 3rd case it's possible you can still sign up. Usually there will be a message displayed explaining why the instance is closed and/or how and under what circumstances you can still sign up. An example for this is climatejustice.global. Only if the message says that signups are not possible do you really have to find another instance.
How to get started with your account
Writing an intro post
If you're new it's always a good idea to write an intro post. Use the hashtag #introduction (#introductions and #intro are also used) and tell us about yourself. What are your hobbies, interests, political views, causes and – very important – pronouns. Of course only tell us what you are comfortable with. Use hashtags so you are more easily found. A good intro post will get you some boosts and follows from like-minded people. It's also a good idea to pin your intro post on your profile. If someone discovers your profile, they might not see any posts from before they discovered you. Unless you have pinned posts that is. Pinned posts are always discovered with the profile.
Filling your (home)-timeline(s) with interesting content
At the beginning your home timeline will be quite empty or filled with stuff from accounts you are automatically following if you sign up for a specific instance. That is often admin stuff, which might not interest you. If you want you can unfollow the accounts you are following to start new. But then it's a good idea to start following people who post interesting stuff. There are many ways to find those. You can for example browse recommendations under the hashtags #FollowFriday and #FollowRecommendation. There are also some lists out there showing accounts by category. E.g. there is Trunk. For climate justice specifically there is my list here. Then there is @FediFollows with recommendations ordered by category in this thread.
Once you follow a few people just check out the home timeline. There will be boosted posts from accounts you are not following yet. If you like what you see you can follow those too to fill the timeline more.
If you are using the advanced interface you can also create hashtag timelines. Just search for a hashtag and click on it. A new column will open which displays posts of that hashtag. In the top right corner you can click to pin the column. Once you did that you can click in the top right corner again and add additional hashtags to the column.
To keep the Fediverse inclusive and free from surveillance here are some guidelines:
- Use image and video descriptions Describe what is going on in your videos and images for blind and deaf people. You don't need to do so in the post, but there is a caption function in Mastodon and most other softwares
- Use CamelCase When using hashtags that contain composite nouns or are even full sentences write the first letter of each word large. E.g. #FridaysForFuture or #WhatDoWeWantClimateJustice
- Don't use too many emoji. Screen readers read them as text and lots of emoji can be horrible to listen to.
- Don't repost retweets to the Fediverse There are Twitter-Mastodon crossposters. It is generally okay to use them, but try to avoid giving Twitter credit on Mastodon. Generally it's best to crosspost from Mastodon to Twitter but if you have to do it the other way around make sure you don't crosspost retweets and don't crosspost posts that contain Twitter handles.
- Avoid links to Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, Google, Amazon, Apple, Microsoft, Netflix, Spotify, ... There are alternatives for most of them. E.g if you have to link to a Twitter thread use Nitter (https://github.com/xnaas/nitter-instances), if you want to post a video and you have the rights to upload the video use Peertube, otherwise use Invidious (https://www.thailinux.com/invidious.html), if you want to link to Instagram use Bibliogram (https://git.sr.ht/~cadence/bibliogram-docs/tree/master/docs/Instances.md), ...
Further Articles and a Video
Getting started with Mastodon explains the user interface quite extensively, so if you are overwhelmed at first, this might help. Though note that this guide explains the old (or now known as advanced) interface. – by Kev Quirk, written on 2018-08-13
The Fediverse: the distributed social network contains lots more of articles and resources.